Home. Such a simple, yet evocative word. So essential to our sense of security and wellbeing. Most of us rely pretty heavily on the comforts of home to help us endure the vicissitudes of life out there in the wide world. Faced with daunting challenges and fearful prospects, dangers, difficulties and dilemmas, the child within cries, “I wanna go home!”
We are not alone in finding safety and comfort in the nest, in the den, in the burrow. Our animal compatriots in the wild need their space also. Educators here at Severson Dells explain to school groups that organisms “Have to Have a Habitat” and we explore the many ways in which they find their respective niches in nature. Every organism needs shelter, nourishment (food and water), and space. If any of those needs is withheld, the organism cannot thrive and may not survive—at least not for long.
I was reminded of these essential truths recently when setting up a photographic plot to record progress in restoration here at The Dells. Along the crest of a low ridge, I came across a spoil pile: light-brown glacial till unearthed from below the surface by an animal digging a burrow or den. Evidently, the animal had taken up residence there some time ago: the soil was worn and lightly weathered; new plants had taken root there.
Just a few feet away, however, was a second excavation, one that apparently was quite fresh, looking as if it had never seen rain. What impressed me about it was the size of the stones that had been dragged or pushed out of the hole. Some were rough-hewn, several inches in diameter, and must have weighed a few pounds.
It can be difficult to tell with certainty which local mammal would have dug a given burrow. For denning season, coyotes may dig holes to occupy while giving birth and caring for their young pups, although such dens are generally abandoned by early July. Opportunistic as they are, coyotes are more likely to use a den that was excavated, and subsequently abandoned, by another animal. Red foxes typically leave scraps of bone and hide around a den entrance. Woodchucks (groundhogs) are well known for their excavation expertise and their dens often feature a “dirt porch.” A woodchuck would be capable of pushing a fairly large stone up and out of its burrow.
Curiously, a number of local animals may occupy a single burrow, either consecutively or—reportedly—even at once. Skunks, opossums, badgers, coyotes, raccoons, and groundhogs are said to be among those known to cohabitate from time to time.
Hollow trees, of course, offer another familiar form of shelter for wildlife. A large oak near the underground burrows presented an ample opening into an interior chamber; a walnut husk on the lip of the opening hinted at the chamber’s occupancy.
In addition to the many bird species known to be cavity nesters, the following mammal species also are known to occupy hollow trees: raccoons, opossums, fox squirrels, gray squirrels, flying squirrels, bats, white-footed mice, bobcats, and gray foxes. (Yes, gray foxes do climb trees!) Given the walnut husk, it seems likely that one of the squirrels calls this place home.
Home. It means much more than the house (or den or burrow or nest) that we live in. Home embraces the wider environment. Our community. And when we care deeply about the natural environment, we come to realize and respect the fact that our home includes at least a portion of the natural world. And we associate our sense of comfort and wellbeing with that local environment. This is what it means to have developed a sense of place. And this is what it means to come home to nature.